Chronicles of Complementary, Alternative & Integrative Medicine

CURCUMIN: The Golden Nutraceutical from The Most Powerful Herb in the Planet-Turmeric!!

Divya R1, Ashok V2, Rajajeya kumar M3*

1Department of Physiology, Karpagam Faculty of medical sciences and research, Coimbatore, India. (Affiliated by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai).

2Department of Biochemistry, Karpagam Faculty of medical sciences and research, Coimbatore, India. (Affiliated by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai).

3Department of Physiology, Trichy SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Trichy, 621105. (Affiliated by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai).

*Corresponding author: Rajajeya kumar M, Department of Physiology, Trichy SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Trichy, 621105. (Affiliated by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai) Tel: +919751382650; Email: rajakumar60@gmail.com

Citation: Divya R, Ashok V, Rajajeya kumar M (2019) CURCUMIN: The Golden Nutraceutical from The Most Powerful Herb in the Planet-Turmeric!!. Chronic Complement Altern Integra Med: CCAIM-100004

Received Date: 16 March, 2019; Accepted Date: 19 March, 2019; Published Date: 25 March, 2019

 

Turmeric: The Most Powerful Herb in The Planet

Turmeric is one of the chief essential of Indian cooking. It is added flagrantly in the curries and various favoured Indian dishes [1].

Turmeric is considered of the top most herb nutrients in the world. It was utilised all-through the olden times by some of the most active health care benefactors in the world. A plant called Curcuma longa, native of India and other Southeast Asian countries producesTurmeric. The dried out root of this plant is pulverized to a characteristic colored yellow powder called the turmeric powder. The turmeric contains more than a few chemical composites called curcuminoids. Curcumin is the most dynamic compound of turmeric. It is because of the presence of Curcumin; turmericis called the functional food. According to the Mayo clinic, beyond basic nutritional benefits, functional foods have a significant positive effect on health of the user. Turmeric helps in fighting and possibly reversing the disease process. The health benefits of turmeric are amazingly massive and very methodically researched. Presently, more than 12,500 peer-reviewed research articles published across the world evidencing the health benefits of turmeric, specifically one of its prominent therapeutic component, the curcumin [1].

Why Curcumin Is Called the Golden Nutraceutical?

Curcumin holds antimicrobial, anti?inflammatory, antidepressant, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antigrowth, antiarthritic, anticancer, antiaging, anti-atherosclerotic, memory?enhancing, wound healing properties. Furthermore, it also has radio sensitization, chemo sensitization and chemo preventive features [1,2]. For various illnesses like hepatic disorders, dermatitis, acne, gynaecological disorders, rash, infectious diseases, gastric infections, blood disorders, psoriasis, and other chronic disorders were treated using turmeric in customary Indian medicine [3] Various in vivo research demarcated the therapeutic potential of curcumin against various types of cancers, diabetes neurodegenerative disorders, atherosclerosispro?inflammatory diseases, depression and obesity [3].

Curcuminis Multifunctional

Curcumin acts as a multitargeted agent has been shown to exhibit anti?inflammatory action due the with holding of several cell signalling pathways such as NF?κB, STAT3, Nrf2, ROS and COX?2 at the molecular level. It has been proven in more than a few studies that the curcumin has an extremely powerful antimicrobial agent and acts against innumerable chronic diseases such as obesity cancers, diabetes, and neurological autoimmune cardiovascular, pulmonary diseases. Moreover, curcumin has a synergistic mode of action when combined with the other nutraceuticals such as piperine, catechins, genistein, quercetin and resveratrol. So far, more than 100 diverse clinical trials done with curcumin, showed the tolerability, safety, and its efficacy against several chronic ailments in human beings [4].

Drawbacks in Utility of Curcumin

  • Colour
  • Lack of water solubility
  • Poor absorption
  • Rapid metabolism
  • Rapid systemic elimination
  • Low bioavailability

The efficacy of curcumin is pointedly stalled by its colour, absence of water solubility and low-slung bioavailability. Meagre absorption, swift metabolism and speedy systemic elimination are linked with the main reasons contributing to the low-slung bioavailability of curcumin in tissue and plasma. Under physiological conditions, its active methylene group and β?diketone moiety makes curcumin unstable[4].

Modified Curcumin Analogues/Derivatives

Diverse structural modifications resulted in active methylene and carbonyl substituted curcumin analogues. These derivatives possess enhanced antioxidant activity. Using different alterations in the chemical structure, several synthetic analogues of curcumin are obtained. The demethoxy curcumin and bidemethoxy curcumin are the natural analogues of curcumin which were testified to have a parallel bioavailability to curcumin [4].

Curcumin in Nanomedicine

Several techniques were used to augment the bioavailability of Curcumin, whichcomprises of the usage of liposomal curcumin, curcumin reformulated with various oils adjuvants, curcumin phospholipid complexes, curcumin nanoparticles, and conjugation of curcumin prodrugs with inhibitors of metabolism, and connecting curcumin with polyethylene glycol. The combination of synthetic curcumin analogues and usage of organizational analogues of curcumin plays a major part in the augmentation of its bioavailability [2,5-7].

Curcumin liposomes/CUR liposomes

Liposomes are used as an operative carrier to augment the targeting property, bioavailability and stability of conventional curcumin grounding methods. CUR liposomes (curcumin liposomes) are synthesised by Freeze-dried method, Reversed-phase evaporation method Thin-film hydration method for CUR, Solvent injection methods, Thin-film ultrasonic dispersion methodFreeze-thawing method, thin-film dispersion method. The new fangled formulations are Ligand-modified CUR liposomes, Long-circulating CUR liposomes, CUR nano liposomes [8].

Cur liposomes& Cancer

In various categories of cancer that includes, breast cervical, prostate, liver, lung and OS cancers CUR liposomes has exercised beneficial therapeutic properties. Because of its meagre solubility and decreased bioavailability the in vivo actions of CUR are insufficient. Liposomes delivers an operative drug delivery arrangement for CUR. The liposomes can enhance the antitumor and pharmacological activities of CUR, reduce the amount critical for targeting the tumour cells by altering the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of curcumin. In the liposomes, the Curcumin is merged in with many provisions like hyaluronic acid, silica, folic acid CS, PEG conjugates, CMD vitamin A, β-CD. Incorporation of CUR in liposomes is a flawless approach in cancer patients as the incorporation of the drug that is condensed in the liposomal nanoparticles can make cancer cells sensitive such as CUR, C6 ceramide in OS cell line [9].

Conclusion

Curcumin is a low-priced polyphenol compound mined from curcuma longa that is profusely accessible and non-hazardous with unveiled medicinal values.The positive effects of curcumin against various diseases vastly applicable in current population has been proved. Research assures that curcumin liposomal formulations improve curcumin bioavailability and are systemically benign. The testing of these preparations as therapeutic modalities is extremelynecessary and is vital for forthcoming clinical trials, foruse by humans. The need of the hour is to lessen the dosage of primary drugs used therapeutically, and also the enactment of curcumin formulations as amalgamation agents may help to enhance the efficacy therapeutically as well as reduction in causing systemic toxicity.

 


Figures


Cancer type

Trial

Influential effect

Lung cancer

CUR liposomes effect on Lewis lung carcinoma LL/2 cell in mice

Made LL/2 cells stagnate in G2/M phase

CUR-PEG-PEI liposomes on A549 cells

Enhanced cell delivery Better anticancer effect

β-CD-CUR liposomes effect on A549 cells

Improved inhibition effect

CUR with cholesterol-based cationic liposomes on A549 cells

Higher cytotoxicity Lower adverse effects

Cervical cancer

CUR-loaded cationic liposomes on Hela and SiHa cells

Increase cell apoptosis More cytotoxicity

CUR-loaded CMD liposomes on Hela cells

Enhanced stability and cell delivery Protected from leak and longer retention time
Stronger cytotoxicity

Prostate cancer

CUR liposomes in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

Promoted drug uptake Higher inhibition with concentration- and time-dependence Had targeting activity

CUR nanoliposomes on LNCaP and C4-2B cells

Improved the bioavailability and anticancer effect

CUR liposomes with resveratrol effect on male B6C3F1/J mice

Improved CUR level in serum and prostate tissues
Inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis

Breast cancer

CUR nanoliposomes on MCF-7 cells

Inhibited cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis with dose-dependence
Enhanced bioavailability

CUR-γ-CD liposomes on MCF-7 cells

Higher anti-tumor activity Lower adverse effects

Osteosarcoma

CUR nanoliposomes with C6 ceramide on KHOS cells

Induced G2/M arrest Enhanced cytotoxic effect

CUR-γ-CD liposomes on KHOS cells

More uptake Promoted effectivity

Liver cancer

CUR liposomes on Bel-7402 cells

Better inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis

CUR cationic liposomes on HepG2 cells

Exhibited higher cytotoxicity[9]

Abbreviations: CUR: Curcumin; CD: Cyclodextrin; CMD: Carboxymethyl Dextran

Table: Actions of liposome-based delivery systems of CUR on different types of cancers [9].


Citation: Divya R, Ashok V, Rajajeya kumar M (2019) CURCUMIN: The Golden Nutraceutical from The Most Powerful Herb in the Planet-Turmeric!!. Chronic Complement Altern Integra Med: CCAIM-100004